Rabies Symptoms

Rabies Symptoms

The Source of Rabies Virus

Prompt treatment with rabies vaccine is the only effective means to prevent the death of a person who has been bitten by a rabid animal. The collective immunization of domestic animals and availability of care facilities prepared for successful treatment in humans in case of accidents are the surest ways to control anger and save the lives of those affected.

Rabies is a deadly infectious disease transmitted by some animals infected with rabies virus. The usual source of human infection are dogs, cats, foxes, wolves, bats. The man contracted the virus primarily transcutaneously, due to the accidental bite of a rabid animal inoculated with the virus in saliva, the salivary glands.

Injuries that are associated with the transmission of rabies are basically caused by the teeth and, secondly, by the nails. The lick, although not an obvious form of aggression, is another means of transmission. If the sick animal spends licking wounds or skin abrasions can transfuse the rabies virus.

Although the dog, being a pet human, is the most likely to spread rabies in areas where the disease is not controlled, many people today have wild animals as pets. Moreover, one of the greatest risks in some cities is not given by domestic animals, but bats although not hematophagous (blood feeding), can carry rabies.

The bats that live in cities eat insects, but if they are ill change their usual habits, appear by day, walk across the floor, do not flee from people. If people try to grab them, may be bitten. What we suggest is not to touch any bat, in these cases we must alert the nearest center of zoonoses to drop the animal. Meanwhile, you can cover with a bucket upside down.

Many people die annually worldwide from bites of rabid dogs, especially in those developing countries where rabies is not controlled in dogs, as in Asia, Africa and some Latin American countries, such as Bolivia, Paraguay and Mexico.

Some developed countries, with problems of rabies in wild animals, such as Germany and France, are trying a special vaccination. This is a bolus vaccine that is put into the food. This is done under very special conditions for demarcation of the property, control of the area and so on.

In rural areas, where cattle are exposed to rabies from the bite of vampire bats, vaccination campaigns are targeted at farmers to immunize their animals.

Rabies Vaccine in Humans

Since 1885, when the French chemist and bacteriologist Louis Pasteur successfully administered the first treatment for rabies to humans, numerous studies have been conducted to achieve or improve vaccine antigens that are used to protect the person who has had contact with rabid animals.

The rabies vaccines currently used for the treatment of rabies in humans are made from killed virus, which is why they are called inactivated vaccines. In Latin America, where rabies is a public health problem, government departments employ of vaccine prepared in suckling mouse brain. Intramuscular and applies it in the buttocks.

There are two patterns of rabies treatment for people who have been bitten by a rabid animal or suspected rabies. The classic pattern consists of an initial series of 14 doses, 1 every 24 hours to apply in succession without rest or interruption, and 2 booster doses at 10 and 20 after completion of the initial series.

In the reduced scheme, given an initial set of 7 doses, also applied 1 every 24 hours, and 3 booster doses on days 10, 20 and 60, which are counted from the last dose of the initial series.

There are now other rabies vaccines available, using as a substrate for cell culture virus replication by human or animal. These vaccines require fewer doses but are more expensive administration.

The Guide to the Treatment of Rabies in Man, developed by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) provides that any disease that begins before or during treatment should not be cause for termination of the vaccine series. Pregnancy is not an indication of suspension or denial of limitation.

Treatment clock

From the moment that the person was inoculated with the rabies virus runs an incubation period of about 30 days. This time, you might call appropriate treatment is the most suitable for the implementation of the vaccination series. As time progresses, treatment is not appropriate given that immunizations are started late and it is unlikely that antibodies generated by the vaccine could reach the necessary level of protection.

During the period called ineffective treatment, from approximately day 42, the administration of vaccines will always be late enough to inactivate the virus of rabies, which fatally continue into the central nervous system, which will initiate the symptomatic period of the disease, which leads to death.

How to act in a bite or lick of a rabid animal

Given the bite is recommended immediate medical consultation, it is preferable to wash the wound qualified professional before putting her hand. This is because there are different types of wounds, according to the depth, area affected, etc., which require different specific hygiene.

The professional lava bite area with soap and water, and makes proper medical treatment of the wound. Then evaluate all the factors supporting the decision whether or not the rabies treatment: animal species involved; history of animal aggressor the biting animal observation, confirming the diagnosis in the biting animal, epidemiological status of the area where the accident occurred and severity of the wound.

If during the first ten days of observation the animal shows symptoms of rabies vaccine should not be the person. Also, remember that vaccination is not indicated in cases of contact without injury, or indirect contact with rabid animals.

In general, treatment for those seriously injured or considered at risk (in head, neck, hands or feet), or wild animal bites or whereabouts are unknown, is implemented, along with the first dose of the vaccine, rabies serum. Thus antibodies are transferred to the body to begin to act immediately to combat the virus, until the vaccine generated in the course of days the necessary and sufficient.

The rabies treatment as a preventive in humans is indicated only for those with a high risk of exposure to the virus, either because they live in areas with high prevalence of the disease or from high-risk play. For example, laboratory technicians who handle potentially infected animals, veterinarians, bat cave explorers, garbage collectors or postmen in areas where rabies is not controlled, among others.

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